Ethiopia (ET)

 

 

Capital

Addis Ababa

Population

112 million

Constitution

Republic headed by president

Head of state

President Sahle-Work Zewde

National Day

May 28th

Ethiopia's ambassador to the UK

H.E Mr Teferi Melesse Desta 

The Embassy of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 17 Princes Gate, London SW7 1PZ

The UK's ambassador to Ethiopia

H.E Dr Alastair McPhail CMG OBE

The British Embassy, Comoros Street, Addis Ababa, 858 Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa, bordering Eritrea, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan, and has been using the main port of its tiny eastern neighbour Djibouti for the last two decades. However, following a recent peace agreement with Eritrea, Ethiopia is set to resume using the Eritrean ports of Assab and Massawa for international trade.

Strong economic growth

In recent years, Ethiopia has enjoyed strong economic growth, although, with the exception of agriculture, this took a hit during the COVID-19 pandemic. This growth has helped one of the poorest countries in Africa lift millions of people out of penury, decreasing those living under the national poverty line from 30% in 2011 to 24% in 2016

Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa after Nigeria as well as being the continent’s oldest independent country. It was colonised briefly by fascist Italy from 1935 to 1941 before being liberated by British, Commonwealth and Ethiopian troops.

Ancient Christian heritage

It has a unique cultural and religious heritage, being the host of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, one of the oldest Christian denominations with a presence in Jerusalem for more than 1,500 years. Haile Selassie, the last Ethiopian emperor, claimed a monarchical lineage that stretched back almost 3,000 years to King Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba.

The last emperor’s mishandling of a serious drought led to his fall in 1974 and his replacement by Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam. Another serious famine in 1984-85 devastated much of the country leaving 1.2 million dead and a huge crisis of internally displaced people.

In 1991, Mengistu was deposed by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front. Meles Zenawi took over and established stability and considerable economic advances during his 19 years in power. The years 1998-2000 witnessed a border conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 2018, new prime minister, Abiy Ahmed, ended the state of war with Eritrea, earning him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019.  Eritrea subsequently supports Ethiopia in its internal fight against rebels in Tigray.

War with Tigray

Tigray is the northern-most region of Ethiopia and politicians from Tigray's most powerful party, the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), effectively led the national government for almost three decades following the ousting of the military regime in 1991. The TPLF had played a leading role in the struggle against the junta and was the foremost of the 4 political parties to run the country from 1991, but concern grew about human rights abuses.

TPLF power held until Abiy Ahmed became prime minister in 2018. He dissolved the 4- party coalition in 2019 but the TPLF opposed reforms being pursued by Mr Ahmed and refused to join his new Prosperity Party. The political feuding eventually led to conflict between Tigray and Mr Ahmed's government which began in earnest in November 2020. The government has also been supported by troops from Eritrea, which borders Ethiopia to the north.

Spread of Tigray conflict 

The conflict has spilled over into neighbouring countries, particularly Somalia, as well as neighbouring regions. This includes the heavy involvement by the neighbouring northern region of Amhara, whose militias have actively participated in the conflict by the government's side against Tigray. 

Amhara has annexed parts of western Tigray during the conflict and there have been reports of ethnic-cleansing of Tigrayans by Amharans in these areas.  Amhara regional announced plans to re-settle annexed areas with 15,000 Amharan families, and this was said to be underway by July 2021.

Humanitarian crisis and alleged war crimes

The conflict has led to a humanitarian crisis, displacing many thousands of people. At least 50,000 have fled to neighbouring Sudan. There have also been reports of atrocities, disappearances and sexual and gender-based violence.

In September 2021, US President Joe Biden signed an executive order authorising new sanctions on Ethiopia and Eritrean and government officials following reports of atrocities committed by troops from both African nations in Tigray.

Key dates

100s AD
Kingdom of Axum becomes regional trading power
300s AD
Christianity becomes state religion in much of that is now modern Ethiopia
1530 - 1531
Muslim leader Ahmad Gram conquers much of Ethiopia
1818 - 1868
Lij Kasa conquers Amhara, Gojjam, Tigray and Shoa.
1855
Emperor Tewodros II starts to lay foundations of Ethiopia
1868
DEATH OF TEWODROS: Tewodros defeated by a British expeditionary force and commits suicide to avoid capture.
1935
SELASSIE DEPOSED: Italy's Mussolini invades Ethiopia and deposes Emperor Haile Selassie
1941
SELASSIE RETURNS: British, Commonwealth and Ethiopian troops end Italy's occupation. Emperor Haile Selassie returns to power
1952
United Nations federates Ethiopia with Eritrea
1962
Haile Selassie annexes neighbouring Eritrea
1961 - 1991
ERITREAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: War between Eritrean pro-independence groups and Ethiopia. Finally war ends with expulsion of Ethiopia and vote for independence by Eritrea in 1993
1973 - 1974
FAMINE: An estimated 200,000 people die in Wallo province. in northern Ethiopia as a result of famine.
1974
OVERTHROW OF HAILE SELASSIE: Military coup overthrows Haile Selassie after he fails to deal with a famine
Aug' 1975
SELASSIE MURDERED: Deposed emperor Haile Selassie is strangled to death in his bed by several military officers
1977-1979
The "Red Terror" of Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam kills many thousands
1984-1985
FAMINE Worst famine in a decade strikes; Western food aid sent; thousands forcibly resettled from Eritrea and Tigre.
March 1991
WAR WITH ERITREA ENDS: Eritrean people's Liberation Front (EPLF) captures Eritrea's capital, Asmara, EPLF the assist rebels topple Mengistu in Addis Ababa
May 1991
FALL OF MENGISTU: Fall of military junta. 4-party coalition takes over, led by Tigray Popular Liberation Front (TPLF)
April 1993
ERITREAN INDEPENDENCE REFERENDUM: Eritreans vote by huge majority for independence from Ethiopia
1994
New constitution divides Ethiopia into ethnically - based regions
1995
Meles Zenawi assumes post of prime minister.
1999 - 2000
BORDER WAR: Ethiopian-Eritrean border war, which is eventually resolved in 2018.
March 2004
Start of resettlement programme to move more than two million people away from parched highlands
Nov' 2006
Ethiopian troops enter Somalia to oust al-Shabab Islamists controlling large parts of the country.
Dec' 2006
MENGISTU SENTENCED TO DEATH IN ABSENTIA: Exiled former dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam is convicted, in absentia, of genocide at the end of a 12-year trial. He is later sentenced to death.
Aug' 2012
PM ZENAWI DIES: Prime Minister Meles Zenawi dies. Succeeded by Foreign Minister Hailemariam Desalegn in September
Oct' 2016
Government declares state of emergency following months of violent anti-government protests
Feb' 2018
Prime Minister Desalegn resigns, as anti-government protests continue
April 2018
Abiy Ahmed, an ethnic Oromo, wins over his challengers to become leader of the ruling EPRDF and therefore prime minister.
July 2018
BORDER WAR RESOLVED: Ethiopia and Eritrea declare their war is over as Ethiopia agrees to evacuate disputed territory.
Oct' 2018
END OF OGADEN INSURGENCY: The government signs a peace deal with the separatist Ogaden National Liberation Front, ending a 34-year armed rebellion
Oct' 2018
1ST WOMAN PRESIDENT: Parliament elects Sahle-Work Zewde as Ethiopia's first woman president, and first female head of state since Empress Zawditu
June 2019
COUP ATTEMPT FAILS: Army chief Seare Mekonnen and Amhara State Governor Ambachew Mekonnen killed while putting down coup attempt against the federal government
NOV' 2020
TIGRAY WAR BEGINS: Tensions with Tigray region after a state election deemed unconstitutional escalate as the federal government sends in troops