We also include profiles of MENA's neighbouring countries in the Horn of Africa, in which MENA countries are playing increasingly active roles.
Countries in the Horn of Africa have intricate and close relationships across the Red Sea and elsewhere across the region. For example, Turkey distinguishes itself from Africa’s Chinese, European and US partners by sharing the religious and cultural identity of countries in East Africa. In particular, Djibouti sees Turkey as an important “strategic partner”.
Gulf states are operating with increased assertiveness in the Horn, establishing military bases and ports and providing increased military and economic aid. They have also sought to resolve some of the Horn’s more intractable conflicts.
An example of how the politics of these regions are often intertwined is that of Ethiopia's controversial Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile which has led to serious tensions between Ethiopia on the one hand and Egypt and Sudan on the other.